Technical Standards

LWD Technical Standards including Q258A (2021) and ASTM E2835-11 (2020)


Test Method Q258A Dynamic Modulus of Deformation – Light Falling Weight Device – Accelerometer Type – (DTMR QLD) – March 2021


ASTM E2835 – 11 (2020) Standard Test Method for Measuring Deflections using a Portable Impulse Plate Load Test Device


Scope: This test method applies to measuring plate deflections using a Portable Impulse Plate Load Test device. The method covers the measurement of deflection of the load plate rather than the deflection of the surface of the pavement or foundation layers

USA State Department of Transport’s

Grading & Base Manual – Light Weight Deflectometer Procedure & Target Value Determination – Minnesota DOT – March 2016
Deflection Measurement Of Soils Using A Lightweight Deflectometer (LWD) – Modified Ndr Standard Test Method T 2835 – ASTM Designation: E 2835 – Nebraska DOT- 2014
Field Determination of Deflection Using Light Weight Deflectometer ITM No. 508-12T – Indiana DOT – Nov 2012
PILOT LIGHT WEIGHT DEFLECTOMETER (LWD) DEFLECTION METHOD (2105 or 2106 Excavation and Embankment) – Minnesota DOT – Nov 2011


TP BF-StB Part B 8.3 Dynamic Plate Load Testing with the Light Drop Weight Tester 2016
TP BF-StB Part B 8.4 Calibration Rules for the Light and Medium Drop-Weight Tester 2016
Collation of German Road & Rail Standards for the Light Weight Deflectometer (LWD) including:


Supplementary Technical Terms and Conditions of Contract and Guidelines for Earthworks in Road Construction ZTVE-StB 94

Supplementary Technical Terms and Conditions of Contract and Guidelines for Excavations and Digging-up in Traffic Areas ZTVA-StB 97

Deutsche Bahn – Guideline to Using the Lightweight Drop-Weight Tester in Railway Construction NGT 39

Recommended Values for Road, Rail and Backfill (Static deflection modulus Ev2 (MN/m2), Dynamic deflection modulus Evd (MN/m2) and Compaction ratio Dpr (%)


including Deutsche Bahn AG (German Rail) – Quote from Directive 836: “Earthworks Design, Construction and Maintenance” (Ril 836)”, (20.12.1999 a)

Proctor Density, Evd & Ev2 Comparison (Sand & Gravel)
Comparison of Ev2 and Evd for different materials & pavement types
Indicative Graph of Ev2 vs Evd vs CBR