Clay – The Problem
The presence of clay is viewed by pavement designers as a risk to be mitigated. Pavements constructed on expansive clay sub-grades, universally suffer from clay soil heave (which is the expansion of clays due to the ingress of water). Commonly, pavement designers address this risk with a range of techniques such as lime or cement stabilisation, the use of membranes to prevent moisture migration within the sub-grade, and additional drainage.
Clay – The Solution
TERRA-3000® transforms clay into a high-performing asset. Instead of remove and replace, many clay soils can be treated insitu. TERRA-3000® permanently and irreversibly breaks down the capillary action of water within the cohesive fines during treatment. Also, with appropriate compaction, treated soil particles can more closely associate.
Clay – The Result
The resultant treated layer is no longer prone to the problems associated with the ingress of water. Pavement strength is markedly improved. TERRA-3000® is not a binder or binding agent, meaning that pavement layers which are treated with TERRA-3000® are considered unbound and retain the advantage of flexibility at strength over bound pavements.
The use of TERRA-3000® for stabilisation of cohesive soils can deliver equivalent pavement performance whilst substantially reducing pavement thickness by the creation of a base-grade layer made from in-situ materials. This leads to significant reductions in material removal and replacement compared to a standard pavement design.
Using TERRA-3000® reduces carbon emissions compared to typical pavement design and construction. Lower site carbon emissions result from greater use of in-situ materials, reduced use of imported construction materials (e.g. gravels), less transport movements and the simplified construction methodology. For a given project, manufacture and delivery of TERRA-3000® has a very low carbon footprint, with further sustainability benefits in that it is non-leaching, leaves no residue, is lime and cement free, and has no airborne particulates, meaning it is safe for operators to use and suitable for sensitive environments.
TERRA-3000® is an amine compound soil stabiliser (electro-physical) that is applied as a liquid concentrate diluted with water during treatment. A proportion of clay and silt fines are required for TERRA-3000® to function and soils with a wide range of clay contents can successfully be treated.
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