Research Papers for PANDA® DCP

The research papers for PANDA® Instrumented Variable Energy Dynamic Cone Penetrometer (DCP) cover:

Understanding the PANDA® DCP – Compaction Control and Site Investigation results

Typical field values of penetration resistance for density and consistency of soils (Literature & Empirical based) Miguel Benz Navarrete (July 2021)

Density vs PANDA Cone Resistance (Qd), Friction Angle (degrees), SPT (N), and CPT (Qc)

Consistency of cohesive (silts & clays) and intermediate soils – PANDA Cone Resistance (Qd), Strength (kPa), SPT (N), and CPT (Qc)

Prediction of in-situ dry unit weight considering chamber boundary effects on lateritic soils using Panda penetrometer – Gansonré, Breul, Bacconnet, Benz & Gourvès (2019)
Comparaison des differentes methodes de contrôle a posteriori du compactage des remblais – WELTER Philippe – SPW Géotechnique – Oct 2017 French
QC & QA with Panda and GTR Soil Classification Miguel Navarrete & Haddani – Sol Solution
Mesures dynamiques lors du battage du penetrometre PANDA 2 – Miguel-Angel Benz-Navarrete – Chemical and Process Engineering. Universite Blaise Pascal – Clermont-Ferrand (2009) French (28MB download
PANDA Research – Roland GOURVES, Laboratoire Génie Civil –Université Blaise Pascal de Clermont-Ferrand, France – 2006 (44MB download)
Transport Research Laboratory Assessment Summary of the PANDA CONE PENETROMETER for Compaction Testing (UK)
“Compaction Control with a dynamic cone penetrometer.” Laboratoire de Genie Civil, CUST, Universite Blaise-Pascal de Clermont-Ferrand, France, BP 206 63174 Aubiere – Chaigneau L, Gourves R & Boissier D (2000)
Caractérisation des milieux granulaires du surface à l’aide – Laurent Chaigneau – Université Blaise Pascal (1999) French
PANDA DCP Technical Description, Understanding Results & Correlations – D.D.Langton 1999
The PANDA lightwieght penetrometer for soil investigation and monitoring material – Ground Engineering Article September 1999 D.D.Langton (90MB download)
“The Panda ultralight dynamic penetrometer.” Proc 11th Euro. Conf. on Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering, 28th May – 1st June 1995 Copenhagen Gourves. R & Barjot. R. (1995) French
“Dynamic Probing and Its Uses In Clay Soils”, Proc Int Conf on Advances in Site Investigation Practice. ICE London, March 1995. Thomas Telford. pp 383-395 Butcher, A.P. McElmeel, K. & Powell, J.J.M. (1995)

Comparative Studies – PANDA® vs other Compaction Control Methods

Best practice in compaction quality assurance for pavement and subgrade materials – National Asset Centre of Excellence (NACOE) – Queensland Department of Transport and Main Roads and the Australian Road Research Board (ARRB) – P60

The acceptance of earthwork and unbound pavement construction in Australia currently relies mostly on density testing and CBRs for Quality Assurance (QA).

Though its National Asset Centre of Excellence (NACoE) research program, Queensland’s Department of Transport & Main Roads sponsored a vital ARRB research project to update test methods acceptable for use for QA of pavement and subgrade materials. This state-of-the-industry study assessed test methods that have the potential to:

(a) reliably provide a direct measure of the strength or in-situ modulus value; and
(b) offer significant time savings in turnaround time of test results.

Methods evaluated included Light Weight Deflectometer’s (LWD’s), PANDA® Instrumented DCP, Clegg Hammer, DCP and Plate Load Testing (PLT). Specifically, the devices evaluated included the Zorn Light Weight Deflectometer, the Anix Instrumented Plate Load Test and PANDA® Instrumented DCP.

Alternative Testing Methods for Quality Assurance NACoE Light Weight Deflectometer PANDA DCP Clegg

Plate Load Test PANDA DCP
In earthworks testing, using density ratios is applied widely in quality control. There are currently many different measuring devices which can provide a more accurate measurement of design parameters (strength or stiffness) and can provide a more direct route for parameter assessment (i.e. limit need for any inclusion of generic relationships).

Comparisons of density with alternative in-situ testing show the latter provides significant benefits to the industry. Accuracy is not the same as precision, and industry’s reliance on density places an emphasis on precision rather than accuracy, data usability or timeliness of results.

This research has found density measurements are, although precise, not very accurate due to poor correlation with the results of other modulus or strength-based tests.

Presenters:

Part 1: June 2018

Part 1 introduced alternative methods to assess compaction in the field. The advantages, limitations, and fundamentals of the measurement methods are discussed.

Best Practice in Compaction QA for Pavement and Subgrade Materials Year 1 Report Jeffrey Lee, David Lacey & Burk Look NACOE P60 QLD DTMR, Australia Aug 2017
NACOE Advanced Methods for Compaction Quality Control – June 2018 Webinar – Part 1 (Webinar Slides)

Part 2: February 2020

Part 2 compared the limitations, benefits and issues associated with traditional density testing and other types of testing with research data various sites.

You can download the presentation slides and view a recording of the webinar. The presenters were kind enough to answer your questions.

Part 3: March 2020

Part 3 focused on the applications and procedures associated with alternative testing to a density-based approach.

You can download the presentation slides and view a recording of the webinar.

Erste Erfahrungen mit neuen Schnellprüfverfahren im Erdbau – Uhlig und Kudla – Technische Universität Bergakademie Freiberg – Institut für Bergbau und Spezialtiefbau – 2013 – German
Assessment of PANDA, Light Weight Deflectometer and GeoGauge
The PANDA Variable Energy Lightweight Dynamic Cone Penetrometer – A quick state of art – Benz-Navarrete, Breul, Bacconet and Moustan 2019

Estimation  of compaction control, density and bearing capacity (CBR)

Correlation with other geotechnical tests including Standard penetration test (SPT), Cone Penetration Test (CPT), Pressuremeter test (PMT), Dynamic Cone Penetrometer (DCP)

Estimation of soil characterisation parameters including friction angle, undrained shear strength, shear wave velocity and deformability modulus. 

Innovative Technologies for the Control of Soil Compaction – Review of the State of the Art & Experiences in Chile – Herrera, Espinace et Palma – 15th Pan American Conference on Soil Mechanics – 2015
Leichte Rammsonde mit variabler Rammenergie zur Baugrunduntersuchung und zur Verdichtungskontrolle – Blume und Reichenbach – Bundesanstalt für Straßenwesen (BAST) – Strasse und Autobahn 2008 – German
Comparative Method Report inc PANDA 2 (USA) Prof. Ilan Juran Polytechnic University (2000)

A Soil Compaction Control Technology Assessment and Demonstration

Comparative Studies – PANDA® vs other Site Investigation Methods

Correlation between static (CPT) and dynamic variable energy (Panda) cone penetration tests – Benz-Navarrete, Breul, Arancibia and Moustan – ISC6 2020

PANDA Dynamic Cone Penetrometer (DCP) correlations with Cone Penetration Test (CPT)

The PANDA Variable Energy Lightweight Dynamic Cone Penetrometer – A quick state of art – Benz-Navarrete, Breul, Bacconet and Moustan 2019

Estimation  of compaction control, density and bearing capacity (CBR)

Correlation with other geotechnical tests including Standard penetration test (SPT), Cone Penetration Test (CPT), Pressuremeter test (PMT), Dynamic Cone Penetrometer (DCP)

Estimation of soil characterisation parameters including friction angle, undrained shear strength, shear wave velocity and deformability modulus. 

Comparison Between PANDA Penetrometer Testing and Traditional Testing Methods in New Zealand – K Zamara, A Gilbert-Milne, M Larisch (Brian Perry Civil), L Wotherspoon (University of Auckland) – Sept 2018

PANDA Dynamic Cone Penetrometer (DCP) vs Cone Penetration Testing (CPT), Shear Vane and traditional DCP / Scala in New Zealand

Correlation between Standard Penetration Test (SPT) and PANDA DCP in Compacted Dam with Tropical Soils – Brazil – 2016 Spanish

Mine Tailings Applications

Effect of Pressure, Density and Tailings Water Content on PANDA DCP Cone Resistance – Gabriel VILLAVICENCIO – Tailings 2018 Chile
Methodology for the Spatial Representation of the State of Compaction in Tailings Dams – Ojeda, Zamora, Villavicencio, Espinace and Lemus – Tailings 2015
Risk Minimisation in Construction of Upstream Tailings Storage Facilities based on in-situ testing – Fourie, Palma, Villavicencio, Espinace – Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Paris 2013
The Panda Technology Applied to Design and Operation of Tailing Dams – Espinace, Villavicencio & Lemus – Tailings 2013
Stability of Chilean’s tailings dams with the Panda penetrometer (10 Years Experience) – Espinace, Villavicencio Palma, Breul, Bacconnet, Benz & Gourvès – Paris 2013

Pavement, Backfill, Trenches and Working Platform Applications

Adequacy Of In-Place QC/QA Techniques For Evaluating Constructed Aggregate Layers Of Working Platforms And Flexible Pavements – Hasan Kazmee – Applied Research Associates, Inc., Erol Tutumluer – University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign & Sheila Beshears – Illinois Department of Transportation (January 2017)
Use Of Variable Energy Penetrometer And Geo-Endoscopic Imaging In Performance Assessment Of Working Platforms Constructed With Large Size Unconventional Aggregates – Hasan Kazmee, Erol Tutumluer, Younes Haddani, Miguel A. Benz Navarrete & Roland Gourves (June 2016)
Validation & Refinement of Chemical Stabilization Procededures for Pavement Subgrade comparing Dynamic Cone Penetrometer (DCP), the PANDA penetrometer, and the Portable Falling Weight Deflectometer (PFWD) – Miller, Cerato, Snethen, Holderby & Boodagh – Oklahoma Department of Transport (Oct 2011)

Railway / Railroad Applications

Geotechnical investigation of a French conventional railway track-bed for maintenance purposes – Lamas-Lopez, Cui, Costa D’Aguiar, Calon – SNCF – Soils and Foundations – Japanese Geotechnical Society Dec 2015

A comparison of two methods of determining the stiffness of track-bed materials (dynamic penetration and dynamic plate load) comparing the PANDA / PANDOSCOPE and the Light Weight Deflectometer.

Railway Ballast Settlement – A New Predictive Model – Saussine, Quezada, Breul and Radjai – Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Railway Technology (2014)
Further research using the PANDOSCOPE for non-destructive rail track ballast fouling and formation condition assessment
On Site Mechanical Characterization of the Ballast State – Pierre Breul & Gilles Saussine (2010)

Slope Stability

Assessment of natural slopes susceptible to failure in heavy rainfall based on in-situ cone resistance data – Athapaththui (University of Sri Jayewardenepura) & Tsuchida (Hiroshima University) – Japan 2016
On site characterization and air content evaluation of coastal soils by image analysis to estimate liquefaction risk P. Breul, Y. Haddani, R. Gourvès 2008

Archeology Applications

Evaluating the Archaeological Potential of Urban Soil – Amélie Laurent – Proceedings of the 36th CAA Conference, Budapest, 2–6 April 2008
Using a penetrometer for prehistoric site formation study: the case of Diepkloof rockshelter, The Cape Region, South Africa – Arnaud Lenoble, Michel Martinaud (2003)

Apports du pénétrométre à la connaissance d’un site préhistorique. Le cas de l’abri de Diepkloof, province du Cap, Afrique du Sud – Arnaud Lenoble, Michel Martinaud (2003) French

Other PANDA® Instrumented DCP Studies – Particle Size Distribution (PSD) etc

Physical modelling of vibrocompaction in silica sand mixed with shells – Mollaert, Tavallali & De Schoesitter (International Marine and Dredging Consultants) & Maertens (BVBA) – Belgium – 19th ICSMGE Seoul 2017
Using an artificial neural network (ANN) for the identification of soil from penetrometer data – Nicolas ROMANOWSKI Polytech Clermont Ferrand (CUST) Thesis June 2016 French (11MB)
Predicting grain size class from dynamic penetration test using Artificial Neural Networks – Sastre, Benz, Gourves, Breul & Bacconnet – Sol Solution & Universite Blaise Pascal France ISC5 Australia 2016
Automatic methodology to predict grain size class from dynamic penetration test using Artificial Neural Networks Sastre, Benz, Gourves, Breul & Bacconnet Sol Solution & Universite Blaise Pascal – France

Part of Application of Statistical Techniques – Prof Mark Jaksa – University of Adelaide – 5th International Conference of Geotechnical and Geophysical Site Characterisation ISC5 Australia 2016